Written by Michael Varrige
Masterpiece Cakeshop, Ltd. v. Colorado Civil Rights Commission originated as a complaint made to the Colorado Civil Rights Commission by a gay couple against a baker who refused to bake a custom wedding cake for their wedding back in 2012 due to his religious objection to same-sex marriage (though the baker did offer to sell any other product to the couple, just not a custom wedding cake). The Commission ruled in favor of the couple, finding that the baker’s refusal to make the wedding cake violated Colorado’s Anti-Discrimination Act. The Commission’s decision was affirmed by the Colorado Court of Appeals and was not heard by the Colorado Supreme Court. The Colorado Anti-Discrimination Act states, in part, “it is a discriminatory practice and unlawful for a person . . . to refuse, withhold from, or deny to any individual or group because of . . . sexual orientation . . . the full and equal enjoyment of the goods, services, facilities, privileges, advantages, or accommodations of a place of public accommodation”. It also delineates the process by which a complaint will be heard—by the Commission and eventually appealed to the Colorado Court of Appeals and the Colorado Supreme Court.
In short, the owner of Masterpiece Cakeshop, Jack Phillips, argued that Colorado’s Anti-Discrimination Act violated his First Amendment rights of free exercise of religion and freedom of expression. The Commission countered that a cake was not a form of expression and that the act of baking a cake was neither participating in nor condoning same-sex marriage. For a more thorough look at the arguments made in front of the Supreme Court, please see a prior Legal Pulse post-Review: Masterpiece Cakeshop v. Colorado Civil Rights Commission compiled by Lacey Grummons, the link appears below.
Justice Anthony Kennedy, writing the majority opin